Research
   
I am an experimental field ecologist and my students have been working in the understorey of the Boreal Forest (southwestern Yukon, Canada) since 1990. In addition, from 1992-1999 I did collaborative research with Deborah Goldberg in the Negev Desert (Israel), and from 2006 to the present with Prof. Zhou Zhe khun in China. Over the past few years I have (or had) students in Israel, China, Serengeti, the Garry Oak ecosystem of southern British Columbia, and the Interior forests and grasslands of British Columbia. We focus on two primary questions: (i) how are plant communities structured, and (ii) how do they function?

The first question is addressed by two major sets of studies. First we are testing if the plant community is structured primarily by nutrient limitation, by herbivory, or by their interaction. Our experiments manipulate soil nutrient levels and herbivore levels, and we then monitor the consequences on individual plant species, populations, and communities. Second, we are testing hypotheses about the impacts of competition on community structure and if the magnitude of these impacts change in predictable ways along productivity gradients?

The second question is also addressed by two major sets of studies. First, we are using “functional group knock-out” experiments in which selected components of a plant community are removed and the consequent changes in community dynamics and ecosystem function monitored. Second, by simulating species loss from natural systems, in conjunction with seed and seedling additions, we can determine the effect of plant species identity on invasibility of a community, and the effect of the level of the disturbance of the community on subsequent invasion.

Click here for a recent arcticle (page 10) from the Arctic Institute of North America that features our research.


  Publications {theses - book chapters}
 
 

REFEREED PUBLICATIONS

TURKINGTON, R., McLAREN, J.R. & M.R.T. DALE. 2014. Determinants of herbaceous community structure and function in the Kluane region. Arctic. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.14430/arctic.2012.12-109 pdf

KREBS,C.J., BOONSTRA, R. BOUTIN, S., SINCLAIR A.R.E., SMITH J.N.M., GILBERT. S., MARTIN. K., O'DONOGHUE & R. TURKINGTON. 2014. Trophic dynamics of the boreal forests of the Kluane region. http://dx.doi.org/10.14430/arctic.2012.12-114. pdf

CSERGŐ, A.M., DEMETER, L. & R. TURKINGTON. 2013. Declining diversity in abandoned grasslands of the Carpathian Mountains: do dominant species matter? PLoS ONE 8(8): e73533. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073533. pdf

CARLYLE, C.N., FRASER, L.H. & R. TURKINGTON. 2013. Response of grassland biomass production to simulated climate change and clipping along a natural productivity gradient. Oecologia. DOI 10.1007/s00442-013-2833-2. pdf

GRAINGER, T.N. & R. TURKINGTON.2013. Long-term nutrient enrichment differentially affects investment in sexual reproduction in four boreal forest understory species Plant Ecology 214:1017-1026. pdf

GRAINGER, T.N. & R. TURKINGTON. 2013. Mechanisms for success after long-term nutrient enrichment in a boreal forest understory.PLoS ONE 8(4): e61229. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone0061229. pdf

MacDOUGALL, A.S., McCANN, K., GELLNER, G. & R. TURKINGTON. 2013. Diversity loss with persistent human disturbance increases the vulnerability to sudden ecosystem collapse. Nature 494: 86-90. pdf

FRASER, L.H., HENRY, H.A.L, CARLYLE, C.N., WHITE, S.R., BEIERKUHNLEIN, C., CAHILL JR, J.F., CASPER, B.B., CLELAND, E., COLLINS, S.L., DUKES, J.S., KNAPP, A.K., LIND, E., LONG, R., LUO, Y., REICH, P.B., SMITH, M.D., STERNBERG, M. & R. TURKINGTON. 2012. Coordinated distributed experiments: an emerging tool for testing global hypotheses in ecology and environmental science. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2012. DOI: 10.1890/110279 (published on-line). pdf

RAJANIEMI, T.K., GOLDBERG, D.E., TURKINGTON, R. & A.R. DYER. 2012. Local filters limit species diversity, but species pools determine composition.Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 14: 373-380. pdf

GRAINGER, T. & R. TURKINGTON. 2012. Germinability of Epilobium angustifolium seeds from plants treated annually with fertilizer for twenty-two years. Davidsonia 22:2-8. pdf

SONG,Y., TURKINGTON, R. & D. ZHOU. 2012. Soil fissures help in the restoration of vegetation on secondary bare alkali-saline soil patches on the Songnen Plain, China. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 67:24-25. pdf

KARST, J., HOEKSEMA,J.D.,JONES, M.D. & R. TURKINGTON. 2011. Parsing the roles of abiotic and biotic factors in Douglas-fir seedling growth. Pedobiologia 54: 273– 280. pdf

McLAREN, J.R. & R. TURKINGTON. 2011.  Plant identity  influences decomposition through more than one mechanism. PLoS 6:1-9. pdf

McLAREN,J.R. & R. TURKINGTON. 2011.  Biomass compensation and plant responses to 7-years of plant functional group removals. Journal of  Vegetation Science 22:503–515. pdf

CARLYLE, C.N., FRASER, L.H. & R. TURKINGTON. 2011. Tracking soil temperature and moisture in a multi-factor climate experiment in temperate grassland: do climate manipulation methods produce their intended effects?  Ecosystems 14:489-502. pdf

MARSHALL, C,B., MCLAREN, J.R. & R. TURKINGTON.2011 Effects of plant functional group removal on the soil microbial community. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43: 78-85 pdf

FREMLIN, K.M., MCLAREN, J.R., DeSANDOLI, L. & R. TURKINGTON. The effects of fertilization and herbivory on the phenology of the understory vegetation of the boreal forest in north-western Canada. (Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 43: 389-396) pdf

McLAREN, J.R. & R. TURKINGTON. 2010. Biodiversity loss influences decomposition through more than one mechanism. Global Change Biology 16:3075-3084.  pdf

CARLYLE, C.N., FRASER, L.H. & R. TURKINGTON. 2010. Using three pairs of competitive indices to test for changes in plant competition along a resource and disturbance gradient. Journal of  Vegetation  Science  21:1025-1034. pdf

TREBERG, M. & R. TURKINGTON.  2010. Density dependence in an experimental boreal forest understory community. Botany  88:753-764. pdf

TREBERG, M.A. & R. TURKINGTON. 2010.  Facilitation in an unproductive boreal forest understory community.  Journal of Vegetation Science  21:761-771.  pdf

McLAREN, J.R. & R. TURKINGTON. 2010. Ecosystem properties determined by plant functional group identity. Journal of Ecology 98:459-469. pdf

ZHANG, L., TURKINGTON, R. & Y. TANG.  2010. Flowering and fruiting phenology of 24 plant species on the north slope of Mt. Qomolangma (Mt. Everest). Journal of Mountain Science 7:45-54.  pdf

TREBERG, M.A., EDWARDS, K. & R. TURKINGTON. 2010. Voles are attracted to fertilizer in field experiments.  Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 43:113-116. pdf

TURKINGTON, R. 2009. Obituary. Professor John L. Harper FRS CBE (1925–2009). Journal of Ecology 97:835-837. pdf

KARST, J., JONES, M.D. & R. TURKINGTON. 2009. Ectomycorrhizal colonization and intraspecific variation in growth responses of lodgepole pine.  Plant Ecology 200:161-165. pdf

GILBERT, B., TURKINGTON, R. & D. S. SRIVASTAVA. 2009. Dominant species and diversity: linking relative abundance to controls of species establishment. American Naturalist 174:850-862. pdf

TURKINGTON, R. 2009. Top-down and bottom-up forces in mammalian herbivore – vegetation systems: an essay review. Botany 87:723-739. pdf

RAJANIEMI, T.K., TURKINGTON, R., & D. GOLDBERG. 2009. Community-level consequences of species interactions in an annual plant community. Journal of Vegetation Science 20:836-846. pdf

SHARAM, G. & TURKINGTON, R. 2009. Secondary defense responses of white spruce (Picea glauca) to changes in herbivory and soil nutrient levels. Ecoscience 16:258-264.

FRASER, L.H., GREENALL, A., CARLYLE, C., TURKINGTON, R. & C.R. FRIEDMAN. 2009. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity of Pseudoroegneria spicata: response of stomatal density, leaf area and biomass to changes in water supply and increased temperature. Annals of Botany 103:769-775. pdf

KARST, J., JONES, M.D. & TURKINGTON, R.. 2009. Ectomycorrhizal colonization and intraspecific variation in growth responses of lodgepole pine. Plant Ecology 200:161-165. pdf

SHARAM, G.J., SINCLAIR, A.R.E. & TURKINGTON R. 2009. Serengeti birds maintain forests by inhibiting seed predators. Science 325 (5936) 51.
 Abstract/ Full Text

SHARAM, G., SINCLAIR, A.R.E. & TURKINGTON, R. & A.L. JACOB. 2009. The savanna tree Acacia polyacantha facilitates the establishment of riparian forests in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Journal of Tropical Ecology 25:31-40. pdf

KARST, J., JONES, M.D. & R. TURKINGTON. 2009. Ectomycorrhizal colonization and intraspecific variation in growth responses of lodgepole pine.  Plant Ecology 200:161-165. pdf

SECCOMBE-HETT, P. & R. TURKINGTON. 2008. Summer diet selection of snowshoe hares: a test of nutritional hypotheses. Oikos 117:1874-1884. pdf

LORTIE, C.J. & R. TURKINGTON. 2008. Species-specific positive effects in an annual plant community. Oikos 117:1511-1521. pdf

KARST, J. MARCZAK, L. JONES, M.D. & R. TURKINGTON. 2008. The mutualism-parasitism continuum in ectomycorrhizas: a quantitative assessment using meta-analysis. Ecology 89: 1032-1042. pdf

MDUMA, S.A.R, SINCLAIR, A.R.E. & R. TURKINGTON. 2007. The role of rainfall and predators in determing seasonality and synchrony in reproduction of savanna trees in Serengeti? Journal of Ecology 95:184-196. pdf

MacDOUGALL, A.S. & R. TURKINGTON. 2007. Does the type of disturbance matter for restoring disturbance-dependent savanna ecosystems? Restoration Ecology 15:263-272. pdf

SHARAM, G., SINCLAIR, A.R.E. & R. TURKINGTON. 2006. Establishment of broad-leaved thickets in Serengeti, Tanzania: the influence of fire, browsers, grass competition and elephants. Biotropica 78:599-605. pdf

MacDOUGALL, A.S. & R. TURKINGTON. 2006. Dispersal, competition, and shifting patterns of diversity in an degraded oak savanna. Ecology 87:1831-1843. pdf

MacDOUGALL, A.S, BOUCHER, J, TURKINGTON, R. & G.E. BRADFIELD. 2006. Patterns of plant invasion along an environemental stress gradient. Journal of Vegetation Science 17: 47-56. pdf

RAJANIEMI, T., GOLDBERG, D.E., TURKINGTON, R., & A. DYER, A. 2006. Quantitative partitioning of regional and local processes shaping productivity-diversity relationships. Ecology Letters 9:121-128. pdf

SHARAM, G. & R. TURKINGTON. 2005. Diurnal cycle of spartein production in Lupinus arcticus. Canadian Journal of Botany 83: 1345-1348. pdf

LORTIE, C.J., E. ELLIS, A. NOVOPLANSKY, & R. TURKINGTON. 2005. Implications spatial pattern and local seed density on community-level interactions. Oikos 109:495-502. pdf

TURKINGTON, R., GOLDBERG, D.E., OLSVIG-WHITTAKER, L. & A. R. DYER. 2005. Effects of density on timing of germination and its consequences for survival and growth in two communities of annual plants. Journal of Arid Environments 61:377-396. pdf

SHILO-VOLIN, H., NOVOPLANSKY, A, GOLDBERG D.E., & R. TURKINGTON. 2005. Density regulation in annual plant communities under different resource levels. Oikos 108:241-252. pdf

MacDOUGALL, A.S. & R. TURKINGTON. 2005. Are invasive species the drivers or passengers of ecological change in highly disturbed plant communities? Ecology 86:42-55. pdf

TURKINGTON, R. 2004. Some causes and consequences of the loss of biodiversity: ten years of plant ecological research in Yukon. Davidsonia 15:47-69.

MacDOUGALL, A.S., & R. TURKINGTON. 2004. Relative importance of supression-based and tolerance-based competition in an invaded oak grassland. Journal of Ecology 92:422-434. pdf

ARII, K. & R. TURKINGTON. 2002. Do nutrient availability and competition limit plant growth of herbaceous species in the boreal forest understory? Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 34:251-261.

LORTIE, C.J. & R. TURKINGTON. 2002. The small-scale spatio-temporal pattern of a seed bank in the Negev Desert, Israel. Ecoscience 9:407-413.

LORTIE, C.J., & R. TURKINGTON. 2002. The facilitative effects by seeds and seedlings on emergence from the seed bank of a desert annual plant community. Ecoscience 9: 106-111.

LORTIE, C.J., & R. TURKINGTON. 2002. The effect of initial seed density on the structure of a desert annual plant community. Journal of Ecology 90:435-445. pdf

TURKINGTON, R., JOHN, E., WATSON, S. & P. SECCOMBE-HETT. 2002. The effects of fertilization and herbivory on the herbaceous vegetation of the boreal forest in northwestern Canada: a ten-year study. Journal of Ecology 90:325-227. pdf

WELHAM, C.V.J., TURKINGTON, R. & C. SAYRE. 2002. Morphological development of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) in response to spatial and temporal resource heterogeneity. Oecologia 130:231-238.

ARII, K. & R. TURKINGTON. 2001. Assessing competition intensity along nutrient gradients using a simple model. Canadian Journal of Botany 79:1486-1491. pdf

GOLDBERG, D.E., TURKINGTON, R, OLSVIG-WHITTAKER, L. & A.R. DYER. 2001. Density-dependence in an annual plant community: variation among life history stages. Ecological Monographs 71:423-446. pdf

FRID, L. & R. TURKINGTON. 2001. The influence of herbivores and neighbouring plants on risk of browsing: a case study using arctic lupine (Lupinus arcticus) and arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii plesius). Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:874-800. pdf

DYER, A.R., GOLDBERG, D.E., TURKINGTON, R. & C. SAYRE. 2001. Effects of growing conditions and source habitat on plant traits and functional group definition. Functional Ecology 15:85-95. pdf

DLOTT, F. & R. TURKINGTON. 2000. Regulation of boreal forest understory vegetation: the roles of herbivores and resources. Plant Ecology 151:239-251. pdf

MARCUVITZ, S. & R. TURKINGTON. 2000. Partial shading by, and light reflected from, grass canopies affects the growth and morphology of Trifolium repens L. (white clover). Oecologia 125:293-300.

HICKS, S. & R. TURKINGTON. 2000. Compensatory growth of three herbaceous perennial species: the effects of clipping and nutrient availability. Canadian Journal of Botany 78:759-767. pdf

GRAHAM, S.A. & R. TURKINGTON. 2000. Population dynamics response of Lupinus arcticus to fertilization, neighbour removal and clipping in the understory of the boreal forest. Canadian Journal of Botany 78:753-758. pdf

SINCLAIR, A.R.E., KREBS, C.J., FRYXELL, J.M., TURKINGTON, R., BOUTIN, S., BOONSTRA, R., LUNDBERG, P., & L. OKSANEN. 2000. Testing hypotheses of trophic level interactions using experimental perturbations of a boreal forest ecosystem. Oikos 89:313-328. pdf

TURKINGTON, R., JOHN, E., KREBS, C.J., DALE, M., NAMS, V.O., BOONSTRA, R., BOUTIN, S., MARTIN, K., SINCLAIR, A.R.E. & J.N.M. SMITH. 1998. The effects of NPK fertilization for nine years on the vegetation of the boreal forest in northwestern Canada. Journal of Vegetation Science, 9:333-346. pdf

HUTCHINGS, M.J., TURKINGTON, R., CAREY, P. & E. KLEIN. 1997. Morphological plasticity in Trifolium repens: the effects of clone genotype, soil nutrient level and the genotype of conspecific neighbours. Canadian Journal of Botany 75:1382-1393 (note).

JOHN, E. & R. TURKINGTON. 1997. A 5-year study of the effects of nutrient availability and herbivory on two boreal forest herbs. Journal of Ecology 85:419-430. pdf

TURKINGTON, R. 1996. Intergenotypic interactions in plant mixtures. Euphytica 92:105-119. Keynote address, Eucarpia Cong., Finland. pdf

TURKINGTON, R., & P. JOLLIFFE. 1996. Using response function models to study the competitive interactions of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne in mixtures: short-term and long-term analysis. Journal of Ecology 84:563-571.

MAZE, J. & R. TURKINGTON. 1996. The influence of pasture age, plant density, and genotype on intraspecific diversity of Trifolium repens (white clover). Canadian Journal of Botany 74:1189-1192.

MEHRHOFF, L.A. & R. TURKINGTON. 1996. Growth and survival of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) transplanted into patches of different grass species. Canadian Journal of Botany 74:1243-1247.

QI, M.Q., UPADHYAYA, M.K. & R. TURKINGTON. 1996. Dynamics of seed bank and survivorship of meadow salsify (Tragopogon pratensis )populations Weed Science 44:100-108.

QI, M.Q., UPADHYAYA, M.K. & R. TURKINGTON. 1996. Reproductive behavior of natural populations of meadow salsify (Tragopogon pratensis) Weed Science 44:68-73.

MEHRHOFF, L.A. & R. TURKINGTON. 1995. Resource use and coexistence: experimental tests from a sequence of different-aged pastures. Evolutionary Ecology 9:617-632.

JOHN, E. & R. TURKINGTON. 1995. Herbaceous vegetation in the understorey of the boreal forest: does nutrient supply or snowshoe hare herbivory regulate species composition and abundance? Journal of Ecology 83:581-590. pdf

FRASER, L., CHANWAY, C.P. & R. TURKINGTON. 1995. The competitive role of Gaultheria shallon on planted western hemlock and western red cedar saplings on northern Vancouver Island. Forest Ecology and Management 75:27-39.

GOLDBERG, D.E., TURKINGTON, R. & L. OLSVIG-WHITTAKER. 1995. Quantifying the community-level effects of competition. Folio Geobot. Phytotax. 30:231-242.

KREBS, C.J., BOUTIN, S., BOONSTRA, R., SINCLAIR, A.R.E., SMITH, J.N.M., DALE, M.R.T., MARTIN, K., R. TURKINGTON. 1995. Impact of food and predation on the snowshoe hare cycle. Science. 269:1112-1115. pdf

BOUTIN, S., KREBS, C.J. (and 20 others). 1995. Population changes of the vertebrate community during a snowshoe hare cycle in Canada’s boreal forest. Oikos 74:69-80.

TURKINGTON, R., KLEIN, E. & J. MAZE. 1994 Conditioning effects by neighbours on the growth and form of Trifolium repens L. Canadian Journal of Botany 72:783-787.

READER, R.J., WILSON, S.D., BELCHER, J.W., TURKINGTON, R. (and 16 others). 1994. Plant competition in relation to neighbor biomass: an intercontinental study with Poa pratensis. Ecology 75:1753-1760.

TURKINGTON, R. 1994. Effect of propagule source on competitive ability of pasture grasses; spatial dynamics of six grasses in simulated swards. Canadian Journal of Botany 72:111-121.

FRASER, L., TURKINGTON, R. & C.P. CHANWAY. 1993. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. 102. Gaultheria shallon. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 73:1233-1247.

TURKINGTON, R., & E. KLEIN. 1993. The influence of neighbors on node production, stolon growth and branching of Trifolium repens L. transplants in a pasture. Canadian Journal of Botany 71:1266-1269.

TURKINGTON, R., KLEIN, E. & C.P. CHANWAY. 1993. Interactive effects of nutrients and disturbance: an experimental test of plant strategy theory. Ecology 74: 863-878.

MEHRHOFF, L.A. & R. TURKINGTON. l991. Microevolution and site-specific outcomes of competition among pasture plants. Journal of Ecology 78:745-756.

TURKINGTON, R., SACKVILLE HAMILTON, R. & C. GLIDDON. l991. Within-population variation in localized and integrated responses of Trifolium repens to biotically patchy environments. Oecologia 86:l83-l92.

TURKINGTON, R. & E. KLEIN. l991. Integration among ramets of Trifolium repens. Canadian Journal of Botany 69:226-228.

CHANWAY, C.P., TURKINGTON, R. & F.B. HOLL. l991. Ecological implications of specificity between plants and rhizosphere micro-organisms. Advances in Ecological Research 21: 121-169.

TURKINGTON, R. & E. KLEIN. 1991. Competitive outcome among four pasture species in sterilized and unsterilized soils. Soil Chemistry and Biochemistry 23: 837-843.

CHANWAY, C.P., HOLL, F.B. & R. TURKINGTON. l990. Specificity of association between Bacillus isolates and genotypes of Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens L. from a grass-legume pasture. Canadian Journal of Botany 68: ll26-ll30.

PARISH, R. & R. TURKINGTON. l990. The influence of dung pats and molehills on pasture composition. Canadian Journal of Botany 68: 1698-1705.

PARISH, R. & R. TURKINGTON. l990. The colonization of dung pats and molehills in permanent pastures. Canadian Journal of Botany 68: 1706-1711.

THOMPSON, J.D., TURKINGTON, R. & F.B. HOLL. l990. The influence of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii on the growth and neighbour relationships of Trifolium repens and three grasses. Canadian Journal of Botany 68: 296-303.

PARISH, R., TURKINGTON, R. & E. KLEIN. l990. The influence of mowing, fertilization and plant removal on the botanical composition of an artificial sward. Canadian Journal of Botany 68: l080-l085.

TURKINGTON, R. l990. The influence of grass root systems on growth and form of Trifolium repens. Canadian Journal of Botany 68: l034-l038.

RATCLIFFE, M.J. & R. TURKINGTON. l989. Comparative phenology of some alpine vascular plant species on Lakeview mountain, southern British Columbia. Canadian Field Naturalist l03: 348-352.

CHANWAY, C.P., F.B. HOLL & R. TURKINGTON. l989. Effect of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii genotype on specificity between Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne. Journal of Ecology 77: ll50-ll60.

TURKINGTON, R. 1989. The growth, distribution and neighbour relationships of Trifolium repens in a permanent pasture. V. The coevolution of competitors. Journal of Ecology 77: 717-733. pdf

TURKINGTON, R. 1989. The growth, distribution and neighbour relationship of Trifolium repens in a permanent pasture. VI. Conditioning effects by neighbours. Journal of Ecology 77: 734-746. pdf

SHIVJI, A. & R. TURKINGTON. l989. The influence of Rhizobium trifolii on growth characteristics of Trifolium repens: integration of local environments by intact clones of T. repens. Canadian Journal of Botany 67: l080-l084.

HOLL, F.B., CHANWAY, C.P., TURKINGTON, R. & R.A. RADLEY. 1988. Response of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatus L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) to inoculation with Bacillus polymyxa. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 20: 19-24.

EVANS, R. & R. TURKINGTON. 1988. Maintenance of morphological variation in a biotically patchy environment. New Phytologist 109: 369-376.

THOMPSON, J. & R. TURKINGTON. 1988. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. 82. Holcus lanatus. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 68: 131-147.

CHANWAY, C.P., HOLL, F.B. & R. TURKINGTON. 1988. Genotypic coadaptation in plant growth promotion of forage species by Bacillus polymyxa. Plant and Soil 106: 281-284.

RATCLIFFE, M.J. & R. TURKINGTON. 1987. Vegetation patterns and environment of some Alpine plant communities on Lakeview Mt., Southern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 2507-2516.

AARSSEN, L.A. & R. TURKINGTON. 1987. Responses to defoliation in Holcus lanatus L., Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L. from three different-aged pastures. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 1364-1370.

JONES, D.A. & R. TURKINGTON. 1986. Biological Flora of the British Isles: Lotus corniculatus. Journal of Ecology 74: 1185-1212.

UPADHYAYA, M. TURKINGTON, R. & D. McILVRIDE. 1986. The Biology of Canadian Weeds: 75. Bromus tectorum L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 66: 689-709.

AARSSEN, L.W. & R. TURKINGTON. 1985. Vegetation dynamics and neighbour associations in pasture-community evolution. Journal of Ecology 73: 585-603.

AARSSEN, L.W. & R. TURKINGTON. 1985. Biotic specialization between neighbouring genotypes in Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens from a permanent pasture. Journal of Ecology 73: 605-614.

AARSSEN, L.W. & R. TURKINGTON, 1985. Within-species diversity in natural populations of Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens from four different-aged pastures. Journal of Ecology 73: 869-886.

AARSSEN, L.W. & R. TURKINGTON. 1985. Competitive relations among species from pastures of different ages. Canadian Journal of Botany 63: 2319-2325.

TURKINGTON, R., HARPER, J.L., AARSSEN, L.W., & P. DeJONG. 1985. A reanalysis of interspecific association in an old pasture. Journal of Ecology 73: 123-131.

TURKINGTON, R. & L.W. AARSSEN. 1983. Biological Flora of the British Isles: Hypochoeris radicata. Journal of Ecology 71: 999-1022.

TURKINGTON, R. 1983. Plasticity in growth and patterns of dry matter distribution of two genotypes of Trifolium repens L. grown in different environments of neighbours. Can. J. Bot. 61:2186-2194.

AARSSEN, L.W. & R. TURKINGTON. 1983. What is community evolution? Evolutionary Theory 6:211-217.

DEJONG, P., AARSSEN, L.W. & R. TURKINGTON. 1983. The use of contact sampling in studies of association in vegetation. Journal of Ecology 71:545-559.

TURKINGTON, R. 1983. Leaf and flower demography of Trifolium repens L. 1. Growth in mixture with grasses. New Phytologist 93:599-616.

TURKINGTON, R. 1983. Leaf and flower demography of Trifolium repens L. 2. Locally differentiated populations. New Phytologist 93:617-633.

TURKINGTON, R. & J.J. BURDON. 1983. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. 57. Trifolium repens L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 63:243-266.

TURKINGTON, R. & J. MAZE. 1982. Patterns of dry matter distribution in transplanted populations of Trifolium repens and its bearing on ecological interpretations. Canadian Journal of Botany 60:2014-2018.

DEJONG, P., AARSSEN, L.W. and R. TURKINGTON. 1980. The analysis of contact sampling data. Oecologia. 45:322-324.

TURKINGTON, R., KENKEL, N.C. & G. FRANKO. 1980. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 60:981-992.

TURKINGTON, R. & G. FRANKO. 1980. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. Lotus corniculatus L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 60:965-979.

AARSSEN, L.W., TURKINGTON, R. & P.B. CAVERS. 1979. Neighbour relationships in grass/legume communities. II. Temporal stability and community evolution. Canadian Journal of Botany 57: 2695-2703.

TURKINGTON, R. & P.A. CAVERS. 1979. Neighbour relationships in grass/legume communities. III. Development of pattern and association in artificial communities. Canadian Journal of Botany 57: 2704-2710.

TURKINGTON, R. 1979. Neighbour relationships in grass/legume communities. IV. Fine-scale biotic differentiation. Canadian Journal of Botany 57: 2711-2716.

TURKINGTON, R. & J.L. HARPER. 1979. The growth, distribution and neighbour relationships of Trifolium repens in a permanent pasture. I. Ordination, pattern and contact. Journal of Ecology 67: 201-218. pdf

TURKINGTON, R. & J.L. HARPER. 1979. The growth distribution and neighbour relationships of Trifolium repens in a permanent pasture. II. Inter- and intra-specific contact. Journal of Ecology 67: 219-230. pdf

TURKINGTON, R., CAHN, M.A., VARDY, A. & J.L. HARPER. 1979. The growth, distribution and neighbour relationships of Trifolium repens in a permanent pasture. III. The establishment and growth of Trifolium repens in natural and perturbed sites. Journal of Ecology 67: 231-243. pdf

TURKINGTON, R. & J.L. HARPER. 1979. The growth, distribution and neighbour relationships of Trifolium repens in a permanent pasture. IV. Fine-scale biotic differentiation. Journal of Ecology 67: 245-254. pdf

TURKINGTON, R. & P.B. CAVERS. 1979. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. 33. Medicago lupulina (L.). Canadian Journal of Plant Science 59: 99-110.

TURKINGTON, R., CAVERS, P.B. & E. REMPEL. 1978. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. 29. Melilotus alba Desr. and M. officinalis (L.) Lam. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 58: 523-537.

TURKINGTON, R. & P.B. CAVERS. 1978. Reproductive strategies and growth patterns in four legumes. Canadian Journal of Botany 56: 413-416.

TURKINGTON, R., CAVERS, P.B. & L.W. AARSSEN. 1977. Neighbour relationships in grass/legume communities. I. Interspecific contacts in four grassland communities near London, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Botany 55: 2701-2711.

THESES

LU, J. 2013. The effects of litter quantity and quality on soil nutrients and litter invertebrates in two contrasting forests of Southwestern China. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia. 

DeSANDOLI, L. 2013. Restoration of plant communities to red-burned soils. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia. 

GRAINGER, T.N. 2012. Winners and losers in a changing climate: Causes and consequences of shifting vegetation dynamics after long-term nutrient enrichment in a boreal forest understory. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia. 

CARLYLE, C.N. 2012.  Interacting effects of climate change and disturbance on grassland plants and plant communities. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

deKONING, P.K. 2011. Consequences and recovery after nutrient enrichment and herbivore reduction in the boreal forest understory. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

McLAREN, J. 2010. The Influence of Plant Functional Groups on Ecosystem Functions in a Grassland in Northern Canada.  Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

GILBERT, B. 2008. Notes on Species Coexistence, Invasion and Ecosystem Function. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

MARSHALL, C.B. 2008. Effects of plant functional group removal on the soil microbial community diversity and composition. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

TREBERG, M. 2007. Community- and species-level consequences of competition in an unproductive environment: an experimental approach using Boreal forest understory vegetation. PhD Thesis. University of British Columbia.

KARST, J.D. 2007. Sensitivity in growth responses of tree seedlings to variation on identity and abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi. PhD Thesis. University of British Columbia.

SHARAM, G. 2005. The decline and restoration of riparian and hilltop forests in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia (cosupervised with A.R.E. Sinclair)

MacDOUGALL, A.S. 2004. Joint effects of competition, recruitment limitation, and fire suppression in an invaded oak savanna ecosystem. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

LORTIE, C.J. 2001. Net interactions in an annual plant community in the Negev desert, Israel. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

SECCOMBE-HETT, P. 1999. Summer diet selection by snowshoe hares. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

SHARAM, G. 1997. Secondary defense responses in white spruce (Picea glauca) and Arctic lupine (Lupinus arcticus) to changes in herbivory and soil nutrient concentrations. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

HICKS, S.L. 1997. Compensatory growth of three herbaceous perennial species: the effect of clipping and nutrient availability. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

ARII, K. 1996. Factors restricting plant growth in a boreal forest understorey: a field test of the relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

DLOTT, F. 1996. Components of regulation of boreal forest understory vegetation: a test of fertilizer and herbivory. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

MARCUVITZ, S. 1994. The effects of light conditions from patchy natural canopies on the growth and morphology of white clover clones. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

GRAHAM, S.A. 1994. The relative effects of clipping, neighbours and fertilization on the population dynamics of Lupinus arcticus (Family Fabaceae). M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

FRASER, L.H. 1993. The influence of salal on planted hemlock and cedar saplings on northern Vancouver Island. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

MEHRHOFF, L.A. 1989. The evolutionary consequences of interactions between plants in permanent pastures. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

PARISH, R. 1987. The role of disturbance in permanent pastures. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of British Columbia.

EVANS, R.C. 1986. Morphological variation in a biotically patchy environment: evidence from a pasture population of Trifolium repens L. M.Sc. Thesis, The University of British Columbia.

AARSSEN, L.W. 1983. Interactions and Coexistence of Species in Pasture Community Evolution. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

RATCLIFFE, M.J. 1983. Interspecific associations, phenology, and environment of some Alpine plant communities on Lakeview Mt., southern British Columbia. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

BOOK CHAPTERS

TURKINGTON, R., JOHN, E. and M. DALE. 2001. Plant dynamics in the boreal ecosystem: Herbs and grasses. Pages 69-91, In: Krebs, C.J., Boutin, S., & Boonstra, R. Ecosystem dynamics of the Boreal Forest: the Kluane Project. Oxford University Press, New York.

SINCLAIR, A.R.E., KREBS, C.J., BOONSTRA, R., BOUTIN, S., & R. TURKINGTON. 2001. Community and ecosystem organization. Pages 407-436. In: Krebs, C.J., Boutin, S., & Boonstra, R. Ecosystem dynamics of the Boreal Forest: the Kluane Project. Oxford University Press, New York.

TURKINGTON, R. 2001. Boreal Forest Ecosystems. Pages 521-532, In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Volume 1. Levin, S. (ed.). Academic Press, San Diego.

HUTCHINGS, M.J. & R. TURKINGTON. 1995. Plasticity of branching patterns in the clonal herbs Trifolium repens L. and Glechoma hederacea L.. Pages 173-186, In, Experimental and molecular approaches to plant biosystematics. Hoch, P.C., & Stephenson, A.G. (eds). Proc. I.O.B.P. Symp., Monographs in Systematic Botany, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO.

KREBS, C.J., BOONSTRA, R., BOUTIN, S., DALE, M., HANNON, S., MARTIN, K., SINCLAIR, A.R.E., SMITH, J.N.M., & R. TURKINGTON. 1992. What drives the snowshoe hare cycle in Canada's Yukon? Pages 886-896, In, McCullough, D.R. & Barrett, R.E., (eds.). Wildlife 2001: Populations. Elsevier, London.

TURKINGTON, R. l991. Rapid change in a patchy environment - The 'world' from a plant's-eye-view. Pages 194-200. In, Evolution in a rapidly changing environment: Global Warming (ed. R. Buddemeir). Proc. ICSEB 90.

TURKINGTON, R. & L.A. MEHRHOFF. l990. The role of competition in structuring pasture communities. Pages 307-340, In, Grace, J.B. & Tilman, D., (eds.). Perspectives on Plant Competition. Academic Press, New York.

TURKINGTON, R., HOLL, F.B., THOMPSON, J. & C.P. CHANWAY. 1988. The influence of microorganisms, particularly Rhizobium, on plant competition in grass-legume communities. In "Plant Population Ecology", pp. 343-366. British Ecological Soc. Symposium, Sussex.

TURKINGTON, R. 1985. Variation and differentiation in populations of Trifolium repens in permanent pastures. Pages 69-82, in White, J. (ed.), Studies on Plant Demography: A Festschrift for J.L. Harper. Academic Press.

TURKINGTON, R. & L.W. AARSSEN. 1984. Local-scale differentiation as a result of competition. Pages 107-127, in: Dirzo, R. & Sarukhan, J. (eds.) Perspectives in Plant Population Ecology, Sinauer Assoc. Cambridge, Mass.